Como funciona un Switch Conmutable?

Tema en 'Electrónica' iniciado por La Rotta, 18 Diciembre 2006.

  1. La Rotta

    La Rotta Lanero novato

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    Que mas LANeros

    Si algun electricista lee esto, recordará los switches conmutables, esos que pueden prender o apagar la luz desde dos puntos diferentes. De pronto se llamen de una forma diferente en su país, no lo se... Son de esos que por ejemplo, uno puesto en la entrada, y otro dentro de la habitacion: tanto uno como el otro puede prender o apagar la luz sin importar en que estado está el otro.

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    Mi pregunta es, como funcionan? Sé que, como se conectan con 3 cables en lugar de dos, de alguna manera se mandarán señales entre ellos... ¿pero como lo logran, que tienen por dentro?
     
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  2. celcomltda

    celcomltda Lanero reconocido

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    Sin haces una grafica se te podria ayudar y entender lo q necesitas.
     
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  3. La Rotta

    La Rotta Lanero novato

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    Aca esta el dibujito, disculparan lo hice de afán.

    [​IMG]

    Como ven, los switches normales de pared solo traen 2 tornillos, en cambio, los conmutables traen 3. Pero ojo! no lo confundan con los switches de 3 posiciones: como dije, el trae esas patas para comunicarse con el otro switch conmutable. De esa forma, uno puede prender o apagar la luz desde cualquiera de los dos switches, sin importar si el otro switch esta "prendido" o "apagado".

    Ahora si mi pregunta es, como lo hacen?
     
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  4. CALVIN.

    CALVIN. Lanero reconocido

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    Jovenes alli les hice un dibujo de las 4 posibles posiciones de los interruptores conmutables, como ya lo habian dicho los interruptores conmutables tienen tres terminales, los cuales estan compuestos por un balancin que conmuta entre dos posiciones como se ve en la grafica, el circuito para el interruptor conmutable consta de dos caminos para alimentar una carga, dependiendo de la posicion de los interruptores la carga se puede alimentar por cualquiera de los dos caminos, como se muestra a continuacion:

    [​IMG]


    inclusive si quieren ir mas a fondo existen tambien los interruptores cuatro vias, con los cuales se pueden encender y apagar lamparas desde tres o mas puntos, estos tiene cuatro terminales y lo que hacen es cruzar los dos caminos del circuito, para asi encender o apagar la carga, como se muestra en la siguiente figura:

    [​IMG]

    Si tienen alguna duda pregunten que en lo posible tratare de ayudarlos
     

    Adjuntos:

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    A 2 personas les gusta esto.
  5. La Rotta

    La Rotta Lanero novato

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    Mucho berraco, EXCELENTE EXPLICACIÓN CALVIN!!!! Muchas gracias, K+
     
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  6. celcomltda

    celcomltda Lanero reconocido

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    Si compadre estuvo perfecta la explicacion.
     
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  7. CALVIN.

    CALVIN. Lanero reconocido

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    Tranquilo compadre aqui estamos para ayudar!!!!

    Suerte
     
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  8. danielr410

    danielr410 LANero Tricampeón! Lanero VIP

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    Muchachos que pena revivir un tema tan viejo pero necesito saber algo sobre esto:

    Que aplicaciones tienen estos switches en la vida practica??? espero sean lo mas profundos posibles.

    gracias por su ayuda
     
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  9. CALVIN.

    CALVIN. Lanero reconocido

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    La aplicacion es muy sencilla, te pongo dos situaciones practicas:

    1. tu cuarto queda despues de terminar un pasillo, pero el pasillo es oscuro, entonces necesitas encender la luz para poder llegar a tu cuarto, pero cuando llegas a tu cuarto necesitas apagarla, entonces que tal devolverse para apagar la luz?, por esto se ponen 2 interruptores conmutables uno al inicio del pasillo y el otro al final, para prender y apagar la luz desde cualquiera de esos puntos.

    2. El mismo caso pero en unas escaleras, jajajaja :p que tal devolverse a apagar la luz :p


    Espero este clara la situacion jejejje

    Saludos
     
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  10. Fernely Sierra

    Fernely Sierra Lanero novato

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    grasias pero muchas grasias por tan exelente respuesta
     
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  11. 'Wayne

    'Wayne Lanero reconocido

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    buen tema algo olvidado
     
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  12. JotaTrex

    JotaTrex ..:: LANero # 3 ::...

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    olvidado no... simplemente no habia nada mas que añadir... compadre no está bien revivir temas tan viejos para no aportar nada.
     
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  13. nutricol

    nutricol Lanero reconocido

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    no crea porque con esa revivida se pone de primeras y otros entran y aprenden un poquito dle tema , por ejemplo a mi me servira para hacer una guiay poner una practica a los estudiantes , estaba buscando otro tema pero me cae como anillo al dedo
     
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  14. JotaTrex

    JotaTrex ..:: LANero # 3 ::...

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    Pues en este caso el tema le fué de ayuda a ud de casualidad, pero puede quitar de la lista a alguien que si está necesitando ayuda pronto, el derecho de los casos como el suyo es utilizar el buscador, pero si se mantiene reviviendo temas para que otros entren y aprendan un poquito se le quita oportunidad a los que tienen un problema nuevo... eso creo yo, igual por ahora no hay como mucho tema nuevo, no le veo mucho problema, pero es bueno tener en cuenta eso.
     
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  15. nutricol

    nutricol Lanero reconocido

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    debo aclarar que no fui yo quien revivio el tema, su opinion es respetable , tambien debe considerar el hecho de que el buscador de aca no es lo mas funcional del mundo ponga una o dos plabaras clave y salen 10 paginas de temas y ni siquiera salen por fecha sino puros temas viejos , de cualquier modo el subforo de electronica no es de los mas movidos hay post de varios meses aun en la primera pagina cosa que no sucede en otros asi que no es tan cierto lo de quitarle la oportunidad a otro
     
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  16. 'Wayne

    'Wayne Lanero reconocido

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    a mi me sirviò

    He aqui algunos diagramas

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    http://www.do-it-yourself-help.com/home_wiring. Html

    4 Way Wiring, Source at the Light [​IMG]
    This diagram illustrates wiring for a 4 way circuit with the electrical source at the light fixture and the switches after. Two-conductor cable is run from the light and 14/3 cable runs between the switches. The hot source is spliced through to the second common terminal and the hot terminal for the light fixture is connected to the first common.
    4 Way Wiring, Source First [​IMG] In this diagram the source for the circuit connects to the first common. Three-conductor cable runs between switches and 14/2 cable runs to the light fixture. The neutral is spliced from the source, through to the fixture. The hot from the light is connected to the second common. The travelers run between the 4 way and the two 3 ways.

    4 Way Wiring, Source and Light Center [​IMG] This wiring shows the light fixture and the electrical source in the center of the circuit. Three-conductor cable runs throughout and the hot source is connected to the first common terminal. The travelers are spliced at the fixture outlet box to run to the 4 way. The 4 way comes right after the light fixture but before the second 3 way, making it fall between the two 3 ways as needed. It could also be installed on the other side of the light and the effect would be the same.

    Control Lights from Four Locations [​IMG] Two 4 way and two 3 way switches are used in this circuit to control lights from four different locations. The hot source is at the first common and 14/3 cable runs between all switches. Two-conductor cable runs to the fixture and the light hot connects to the second common terminal. The two 4 ways occur between the 3 ways as needed and the traveler wires run from one switch to the next in the series.

    4 Way Dimmer Wiring Diagram [​IMG] This is the wiring for a dimmer in a 4 way circuit. To make this circuit work, a 3 way dimmer is used in place of one of the standard 3 ways. A dimmer can be added in this way to any of the circuits on this page. These devices have 4 wires: one common, two travelers and a ground. The common wire is usually black and the travelers red, in any case, the traveler wires will usually be the same color to distinguish them from the common.
    In this diagram the hot source is connected at the first common and 14/3 cable runs between the switches. The travelers run between the 4 way and the other devices and 14/2 cable runs from the dimmer to the fixture. The dimmer common wire is spliced to the hot terminal on the light.

    About 4 Way Circuits A 4 way switch must be wired between two 3 ways as shown in the diagrams on this page. A 4 way has five connections, one ground and 4 circuit terminals divided into two matching pairs, sometimes called the input and the output. The terminal pairs may be different colors or they may be labeled to distinguish them from each other. Each pair of terminals should be wired to the traveler wires from one of the 3 ways. The travelers can be wired to either terminal in a pair but don't mix up the pairs or the circuit won't work properly.
    Three way switches have 3 terminals to carry circuit electricity and one terminal for a ground wire. Of the three circuit terminals, one is called the common and the other two are known as travelers. The common terminal may be labeled and is usually a different color than the traveler terminals. Depending on the manufacturer, the travelers may be on opposite sides of the switch or the two terminals may be on the same side. In any case, the common terminal will be distinguished from the travelers in some way.
    The common terminals will always be connected to a hot wire, either the hot source or the device hot. These connections can be reverse if it's more convenient, as long as one of the 3 way switch common terminals connects to the hot source and the other one connects to the hot on the load, these circuits will work properly. The traveler terminals will be connected from switch to switch. Travelers never connect to a device load or to a source wire. It doesn't matter which traveler terminals are used for which traveler wire, reversing them should make no difference.
    About Wiring The wiring diagrams on this page illustrate 15 amp circuits using 14/3 cable between the switches and 14/2 cable to the light fixtures . Existing household wiring used for lighting and receptacles may be on 15 or 20 amps circuits. To use this wiring in 20 amp circuits use 12 awg cable and devices rated at 20 amps.
    To avoid confusion the white cable wire should be marked with black electrical tape when splicing it to carry current. Ground wires should be spliced with at short piece of wire and connected to each device. If the light fixture box has a metal grounding terminal the ground wire should be connected there.
    Troubleshooting All these diagrams have been tested in real life circuits but because of variable factors in existing wiring the examples displayed here may not work in every instance. To avoid problems make sure the hot wire from the source is connect to the common on one of the 3 ways and the hot wire to the fixture is connected to the common terminal on the other one. Aside from the ground wire, only traveler wires will be connected to a 4 way. If after wiring, you experience problems with the circuit, switching the traveler wires will most likely resolve the issue.

    Alternate Wiring Diagrams [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    Wiring Multiple Lights Between 3 Way Switches [​IMG] In this multiple light circuit, two fixtures are shown but more can be added by duplicating the wiring between the lights, for each one added. Note that the ground wire is not used in one of the two–conductor cables between the light fixtures. This wire can be capped or taped and folded to the back of the box out of the way.
    Wiring Multiple Lights Before 3 Way Switches [​IMG] This diagram illustrates wiring multiple lights and the source before the 3 ways. As with the other diagrams on this page, more lights can be added by duplicating the wiring arrangement between the fixtures.

    Wiring Multiple Lights with a 4 Way Switch [​IMG] This diagram shows the wiring for a 4 way circuit with the source and lights coming before the switches. As with all these circuits, the 4 way must be wired between the two 3 ways.

    Wiring Multiple Lights with a 4 Way Switch, Lights Center [​IMG] This 4 way wiring illustrates the source coming before the switches and the light between. The 4 way can be placed between, or on either side of the light fixtures, as long as it occurs between the 3 ways the circuit will work.

    Wiring a Light and Receptacle [​IMG] This wiring diagram illustrates the connections for 3 way switches to control a receptacle added to a lighting circuit. The hot source is connected to the receptacle and the common on one of the switches. The second common is connected to the hot on the light fixture. The neutral is connected to the receptacle and the fixture.

    3 Way Switch Controls a Light and Receptacle [​IMG] This diagram is similar to the one above but both the light and receptacle are wired after the two 3 way switches.

    About These Circuits A 4 way switch must be wired between two 3 ways as shown in the diagrams on this page. A 4 way has five connections, one ground and 4 circuit terminals divided into two matching pairs, sometimes called the input and the output. The terminal pairs may be different colors or they may be labeled to distinguish them from each other. Each pair of terminals should be wired to the traveler wires from one of the 3 ways. The travelers can be wired to either terminal in a pair but don't mix up the pairs or the circuit won't work properly.
    Three way switches have 3 terminals to carry circuit electricity and one terminal for a ground wire. Of the three circuit terminals, one is called the common and the other two are known as travelers. The common terminal may be labeled and is usually a different color than the traveler terminals. Depending on the manufacturer, the travelers may be on opposite sides of the switch or the two terminals may be on the same side. In any case, the common terminal will be distinguished from the travelers in some way.
    The common terminals will always be connected to a hot wire, either the hot source or the device hot. These connections can be reverse if it's more convenient, as long as one of the 3 way switch common terminals connects to the hot source and the other one connects to the hot on the load, these circuits will work properly. The traveler terminals will be connected from switch to switch. Travelers never connect to a device load or to a source wire. It doesn't matter which traveler terminals are used for which traveler wire, reversing them should make no difference.
    About Wiring The wiring diagrams on this page illustrate 15 amp circuits using 14/3 cable between the switches and 14/2 cable to the light fixtures . Existing household wiring used for lighting and receptacles may be on 15 or 20 amps circuits. To use this wiring in 20 amp circuits use 12 awg cable and devices rated at 20 amps.
    To avoid confusion the white cable wire should be marked with black electrical tape when splicing it to carry current. Ground wires should be spliced with at short piece of wire and connected to each device. If the light fixture box has a metal grounding terminal the ground wire should be connected there.
    Troubleshooting All these diagrams have been tested in real life circuits but because of variable factors in existing wiring the examples displayed here may not work in every instance. To avoid problems make sure the hot wire from the source is connect to the common on one of the 3 ways and the hot wire to the fixture is connected to the common terminal on the other one. Aside from the ground wire, only traveler wires will be connected to a 4 way. If after wiring, you experience problems with the circuit, switching the traveler wires will most likely resolve the issue.
     
    #16

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